What is it and how to perform a detailed engineering (Part 1)
The concept of engineering It is synonymous with inventionIt is an activity that transforms knowledge into something practical.
In our unconscious when we refer to the figure of an engineer as quickly as associate constructions bridges O Industrial plants. In IDI We think often engineering no special attention to professional justifying or even decides that he must build a kind of bridge or concrete floor is provided. And it is just this function, which is more related to the definition of detailed engineering, and we are preparing to expand our expertise in this entry.
What will you find in this post?
- The definition of conceptual engineering and basic engineering
- What is the detailed engineering?
- What are the stages of detailed engineering?
1. The definition of conceptual engineering and basic engineering
During a project we can discriminate three engineering phases; the first two more creative (the problem is analyzed and the most appropriate solutions are defined) and the third phase in which these solutions must be realized in only answers have to fully describe and detail necessary for further processing in a reality.
Here we describe what the conceptual engineering and the basic engineering before focusing all our attention on the concept of detail engineering.
Conceptual engineering is initially applied to identify both technical and economic feasibility of the project and that set the tone for the development of basic engineering and detail engineering.
It is based on a previous study (or feasibility study) and in determining project requirements. Then we collect the main points to analyze and study in this engineering phase:
- Products and production capacity.
- Legislation and regulation required.
- The description of the manufacturing process and user requirements.
- The general description of the installation.
- The plan, block diagrams, distribution of rooms, the planes of material flows and people, plans and diagrams classified areas of basic processes.
- The estimated requirements of ancillary services.
- The preliminary list of equipment.
- Economic valuation of investment ± 30%.
In the second phase corresponding to the basic engineering all user requirements, basic specifications, the timetable for implementation and economic valuation is definitely reflected.
More specifically, during this phase the following tasks are defined:
- The detailed review of the conceptual engineering and user requirements.
- Data sheets of all rooms (critical and noncritical), equipment and facilities.
- Calculating thermal loads and air flow in each of the wards, etc,
- Diagrams Piping and Instrumentation (P & ID) basic water, HVAC systems and pipe routing.
- The point distribution service use.
- The revision of the layout of rooms, equipment deployments, including service areas
- Lists consumption and equipment.
The basic engineering developed in two stages: the first involves data collection and preparation of user requirements and in the second the rest of works collected in the above list is developed.
When the basic engineering is validated, then, it is the point where we are ready to have a solid basis for the next and most important step: detailed engineering.
2. What is the detailed engineering?
The detail engineering is the most important development of ideas that at the beginning of the project were conceived as a possibility at this stage and become something more real.
In this phase they are defined each and every one of the subsystems, components or parts that make up the project, developed in a series of documents that should be sufficient to bring the project into practice.
As mentioned, in the development of basic engineering are considered all aspects that set the course of the execution taking into account the project viability. However, details of these are what determine the functionality and end-user satisfaction.
"Detailed engineering is always present in a project"
Even in the case of a clearly defined from the start or a low-complexity project, as it could be a warehouse, objectives can obviate the previous phases but never detailed engineering.
When we started the development of the detail engineering and have previous data that help define the final aspects of the project. Once analyzed, IDI project goes through a technical review whose intention is to polish the details that can be considered a weak point in the execution.
As we have progressed in the first half, detailed engineering concrete the chosen solutions and develops the detail needed to carry them out.
At this stage you can not have significant errors or estimated values although it is not possible to have all the necessary information. The accuracy must be high.
As a general rule a project is correctly calculated when the deviation between the estimated budget and the actual investment does not exceed 5%.
The detailed engineering phase of the project consists of the following tasks:
- Verify, confirm and if necessary modify the assumptions and design solutions.
- Provide all the technical, economic and legal information to the project sponsor.
- Prepare technical data, construction details and conditions to be manufactured or constructed the project detail.
In the following section we break the stage of detailed engineering of the project in its different stages of implementation.
3. What are the stages of detailed engineering?
Step 1: Check the specifications
At this stage we review previous studies and the preceding basic engineering to fit the time and circumstances in which the project is responsible.
This is needed for the following major reasons:
- It is possible that elapsed since the completion of the basic design time has changed the conditions of the environment and therefore the basis set out in the draft may not correspond to the new circumstances.
- When previous studies and basic engineering have been made by different technicians, it becomes necessary to make a synthesis of assumptions and valid before starting detailed design data.
- For reasons of technical, economic and legal nature that would justify modifying the basic engineering.
In this first stage of the detail engineering They will be held the following:
- The definition of subsystems (shape, materials and key features).
- Fixing the calculation assumptions to consider.
- The division of subsystems into components, their modeling and calculation and verification of each.
Sometimes you can not make calculations undefined components that all stages are subdivided. Experience has shown that this becomes necessary first step and the following simultaneously in these cases.
This phase of the project is a key phase technical and design calculations. It is in the study of components and parts, where our professionals are able to appreciate the quality of the draft and the great importance in the final result.
2nd stage: Define and calculate parts
In this second phase the parts in which each component is divided must be such that in the manufacturing phase leaving no constructive aspect undefined. Unresolved detail in the design phase can result in a serious problem later.
The designer used to rely on the expertise of suppliers and manufacturers and leaves in their hands fixing many details. This attitude can be dangerous, even dare to say foolhardy, since neither manufacturers nor suppliers are in possession of all the key problem and also tend to solve them for your benefit is maximum and not necessarily for the is the most optimal result.
In this second stage of the detail engineering the following tasks are performed:
- The definition of the parts of each component and assumptions specific calculation.
- Modeling, calculation and dimensioning of each element.
- The consideration that the elements are part of a set and it must be optimal.
- The study and calculation of the connection elements and auxiliary parts and control assembly.
- Schemes, drawings and construction details of each of the parts.
Step 3: Assembling and check parts
This step leads to a first solution of complete design and comprises the following processes:
- Components and assemble these parts into subsystems.
- Drawing assembly and details of assembly.
- Calculate the elements that were not defined.
Stage 4: Check results dimensions and standards
Once the project calculated and defined the dimensions of the assembly and its components, it is necessary to contrast and verify these results, so that they meet the standards, laws and regulations required.
This is absolutely necessary because, although during the design takes into account the resolution of the calculations and drawings can modify some of the initial considerations and also because of the regulation does not directly affect the calculations. In any case, the rules should be consulted in order to include drawings and other documents all the conditions mentioned is mandatory.
Stage 5: Preparation, review and preparation of documents
Since the project phase is the final phase of preparation before giving effect to a particular work or product, the documents must be complete and sufficient in themselves.
So far we have seen the main stages of the detail engineeringBut to know exactly how it is done on a specific project, we must define the methodologies used in projects Industrial plants to be discussed in depth in the next entry
contact with us so we can advise you personally on the development of the engineering detail appropriate to the specific needs of a industrial plant.
If you've gotten this far, you may be interested you can read our previous post about the importance of manage adequate technical stop in industrial plants.info
The importance of managing adequate technical stop in industrial plants
The Technical stop in industrial plants it is a special case of systematic maintenance to be properly managed, aiming to increase and improve the functionality of your equipment and production capacity of your company.
What will you find in this post?
- A stop of industrial plants requires specialized companies and a high level of organization
- The 5 most common reasons for a plant shutdown
- The main advantage of our scheduled technical shutdowns
- Why is it important to properly plan a plant shutdown?
- What is planning a stop?
- It gives the suitable preparation of the work scheduled
- The link between the various tasks in a plant shutdown
- Our proven experience in technical shutdowns
A stop of industrial plants requires specialized companies and a high level of organization
In IDI We are trying to conceive Technical stop as a project with a plan to detail a set of jobs that can not be performed during normal operation of the processing plant.
These jobs can be the replacement of equipment or components by maturity of its life, the inspection of facilities and equipment, incorporating enhancements, or bug fixes. These are all tasks that require a lot of resources.
The plant shutdown provides an extraordinary opportunity to intervene facility assets they are generally not available during normal operation. We took advantage of the brief period of downtime to carry out shutdowns, which usually may also be motivated by issues related to security.
In this sense, our experience in this service we have found that the loss of production during a plant shutdown can be retrieved by the superior functionality that is subsequently reaches it.
We also know that these projects require in most cases of external companies specialized in this field, which can provide a large number of qualified personnel, as well as specific tools and means industrial engineer.
A stop is a critical activity in the life of a facility and requires a high level of organization. It opens a lot of teams, they go through a technical review, They repaired, reassembled and launched.
Cost, duration and effectiveness with which all jobs that may involve a technical stop running are transcendental.
The 5 most common reasons for a plant shutdown
The technical stops scheduled maintenance may be motivated by any of the following top 5 reasons explained below:
1 # preventative maintenance system
Generally speaking, the Preventive Maintenance It is carried out in facilities for safety reasons or production must operate reliably for long periods of time.
2 # Corrective maintenance scheduled
In the case of Corrective maintenance It is the correction of a fault which motivates the realization of a scheduled stop. It may be faults, despite its severity, it can postpone its correction to find the right time for Technical stop. Given that these failures may affect facilities that take them out of service may result in the shutdown of the plant for not being duplicated.
If it's about failures easily accessible itemsSuch as repairs boilers, furnaces, tanks, reactors or other external elements these stops They can last between 1 and 5 days. However if it is major repairs inaccessible elements that require large takedowns, repairs They can last for weeks or even months.
3 # The inspections or technical tests, not both routine maintenance, but conditional maintenance.
Roadworthiness tests are conducted mainly to ensure that the most important facility equipment are in good condition.
inspections They are programmed and may include functional tests. Usually they do not require major disassembly as it is checking the status of a part of the installation or performing certain tests that require the shutdown of the plant system.
They tend to be short stops that usually do not exceed weeklongFor example, we mean the time to reach a temperature or a pressure in an area, the time required inspection or the system reset period.
4 # The implementation of major technical revisions scheduled
The technical reviews scheduled are carried by operating hours, for predetermined time periods or per unit produced, among other criteria.
5 # The implementation of improvements in equipment installations
Technological innovation sometimes involves the development of improvements implemented at the facility involves an increase in production capacity, solving a technical problem or reliability, increased performance and energy savings.
In practice several of them are combined in the same technical stopFor example a stop for reasons of corrective maintenance can be used to make small improvements in equipment or minor technical inspections.
The main advantage of our scheduled technical shutdowns
1 # The undisputed increased availability
This is a clear advantage given that availability values above 90% are possible only in industrial installations subject to severe technical reviews planned and carried out systematically.
Why is it important to properly plan a plant shutdown?
Yes one Technical stop in an industrial plant not properly planned and organized it can bring several setbacks associated particularly important for the following reasons:
1# In a very short space of time attempting to perform a large number of interventions that must be perfectly prepared.
2# At one stop we have no regular staff on the ground, which can not be sufficiently technically trained for these interventions. That is why the company or companies engaged for a stop plant must be chosen carefully, making sure that can provide the required qualified personnel.
3# The possibility of accidents increases so a very important part of plant shutdown project we conducted in IDI It is to ensure safety in all work to be performed. From checking the necessary training of personnel intervene, the study of the possible risks that exist during the development of these works, to the state of equipment and tools to be used.
4# In many companies the maintenance stop is an essential activity, since certain teams can not stop their activity except at certain times. In this sense, a mistake made in these cases is to run in those days interventions that can be performed at any time, not just during the pit stop.
What is planning a stop?
The definition of the critical path is the most important task in a plant shutdown
For us one of the keys when properly plan a stop, regardless of its size, it is maximum simplification.
IDI is very important to consider all the activities to be developed, since the delay of either can trigger delay the whole project. However, it may also be the case that a particular delay does not influence and serve to allocate more resources needed for other activities. This is because not all activities have the same degree of influence in the advancement or delay of draft technical stop.
So in all technical stops must define the critical path, Understood as the set of linked tasks that determine the duration of the project. If you want to reduce the project duration it is also necessary to reduce the duration of some of the tasks that make up the critical path.
Critical path management is the most important task, and is perhaps almost the only one responsible for the assigned Technical stop. This is to ensure that each phase is carried out without delay to be terminated, the critical task at hand.
The critical path management of a stop includes 4 phases to take into account:
- Identifying the critical path.
- Time optimization of each of the critical tasks.
- Check that the critical path has not changed after optimization.
- Subordination of other tasks the critical path.
Proper preparation of work scheduled
To ensure compliance with the timelines provided at stops is very important the initial preparation phase. Tasks must be properly planned, the critical path and have all the necessary resources to carry out scheduled jobs. It is therefore crucial to ensure the following key points:
1# Availability of skilled labor needed for each job. In addition to checking that all staff have the requirements to start the work assigned (administrative requirements, contracts, safety training, etc.)
2# Ensure that all qualified personnel involved in the work known exactly the task that needs to run.
3# All required materials must be ground before starting work. They should be well in advance on the premises if the technical review of the materials received did not meet the required specifications.
4# The availability of all necessary means to perform the requested technical stop.
5# Validate that have requested all necessary work permits and have taken all safety measures required.
In phase preparatory work It is very important to discriminate scheduled tasks that can be performed before and during plant shutdown. Everything that can be done to stop pre-supposes a liberating resources that can leverage later.
The link between the various tasks in a plant shutdown
It is the point that usually generates more timeouts in a technical stop. And in the case of the link between tasks that are included in the critical path it requires even more of our attention.
It is one of the tasks responsible for stopping the check at all times that the next task will be performed immediately after the previous one, avoiding at all costs the unwanted downtime.
Our proven experience in technical shutdowns
IDI We specialize in detailed engineering for chemical and pharmaceutical industry and have proven experience programming and directing recognized technical stops Industrial plants.
The whole experience that we have accumulated allows us to anticipate as many contingencies that we have advanced in this post, advising our clients on the best suppliers, and generate all Technical documentation required for a stop at the best possible conditions.
We recently participated in scheduled technical shutdowns of major companies in the chemical and pharmaceutical sector, we highlight Azko Nobel , B Brown , Total Petrochemical Iberian or Merquinsa, among others.
contact with us so we can advise you personally about technical stops highly experienced and adapted to the specific needs of an industrial plant.
IDI SL renews its image corporate and launches website
At Ingenieria y Desarrollos industrial S.L. we have taken a turnaround in our corporate image, maintaining the identity that accompanies us for more than 25 years. More than a proper change, represents an evolution of the mark to adapt to the needs of our customers and users. This rebranding is a project that affects to all the levels of our image: logo, cards, documents commercial, website...
The new web page, in addition to having a more aesthetic and professional design is much more functional and practical. A very clear and intuitive way we show all our services and catalogues, together with a very present in the entire platform contact form. To facilitate the navigation and user experience, the new portal has a responsive, of mode design that adapts perfectly to any device (smartphone, tablet, computer...).info